Courage to Talk for the Next Era

Self-Strengthening Movement of China

Posted in Uncategorized by Courage to Talk for the Next Generation on January 26, 2010

I love East Asia”                                                

~Seeking the true History~

This is updating from New York City. Hello, everyone. This is ILEA.

~The Chinese response under the pressure from the great western power Part 4~

Self-Strengthening Movement of China

Some bureaucrats realized the strength of Western powers’ fighting ships and cannons’ so they tried to learn and adopt Western military and science in order to enhance China. They invited foreign experts and built the modern military factory with their latest technologies, built railroads, opened mines, established new schools and sent international students to abroad.

Hanyang_Arsenal

For example, Li Hung Chang, a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire, called on foreign military advisers to train Chinese army and establish modern navy.

Li Hung Chang

1890, these measures achieved certain results. It firmed the foundation of Chinese modern industry and broadened people’s international outlook somehow. These movements were called ‘Self-Strengthening Movement’. However bureaucrats who pushed those movements couldn’t reach the answer of the measure causes of the Chinese lost was because of their political corruption so their movement was limited and kept failing to protect China from Western invasion. At the time Beiyang Fleet was the most biggest sea forces in the Asia and it was much stronger than Japanese sea forces.

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Establishing the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Posted in ~Treaty of Nanking~ by Courage to Talk for the Next Generation on January 21, 2010

“I love East Asia”

~Seeking the true History~

This is updating from New York City.

Hello, everyone. This is ILEA. 

The Chinese response under the pressure from the great western power. ~Part 3~

The Treaty of Nanking concluded, mass of western goods float into China and broke the self-sufficiencies of rural areas. Additionally the Chinese government kept imposing heavy imposition on farmer in order to pay war reparation to the western powers. This heavy burden piled unfocused anger among the farmers and finally it led to cause the one of the biggest riot in the history known as Taiping Rebellion. Hong Xiuquan and Yang Xiuqing mobilized the populace through Christian organization and rebelled against the Chinese government.

Hong Xiuquan

Yang Xiuqing

They established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and had been fought the Chinese government over 14 years. The Taiping territory.  They aimed to establish a Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace based on Christianity. However, their attempts ended up in failure because of the internal division in the Taiping government and the siege warfare of the Chinese government hold their hands with western powers.

~Western Influences~

Posted in ~Treaty of Nanking~ by Courage to Talk for the Next Generation on January 17, 2010

“I love East Asia” ~Seeking the true History~

This is updating from New York City.

Hello, everyone. This is ILEA.

 The Chinese response under the pressure from the great western power. ~Part 2~

After the Treaty of Nanking, the western powers were not satisfied with it so they led to additional war against China such as the second opium war known as Arrow War and Sino-French War in order to get additional trade profits and territories. Failing of most resistances, Chinese government had to cede a huge territory, pay wartime reparation and open several new ports to the western powers. Increasing trading ports, foreign missionaries had been increased and they could do their missionary across the country.

Second Opium War

Shino-French War

Gradually, the western powers made their own influences in China. The British extended their influence over Chang-Jiang basin zone, the german did over Shandong Peninsula, the French did the Guandong Coast,the Russia did over the North East China and the US ordered China obey their “Open Door Policy”.

~Treaty of Nanking~

Posted in ~Treaty of Nanking~ by Courage to Talk for the Next Generation on January 17, 2010

“I love East Asia”

~Seeking the true History~

This is updating from New York City.

Hello, everyone. This is ILEA.

The Chinese response under the pressure from the great western power. ~Part 1~

Under the confusion of opium, 1939, Lin Zexu burned up 1180 tons of opium confiscated from foreign and chinese opium dealer. Against his order, the British parliament decided and sent fighting ships into Tianjin near Beijing. The chinese government in confusion, Daoguang Emperor ordered Quishan to replace Li zexu as an Imperial Inspector Minister to negotiate the British. 1842, the British treated the Chinese government and let them sign the treaty of Nanking. The treaty ceded the island of Hong kong and opened five ports, Canton, Xiamen, Foochou, Ningpo and Shanghai to the British. It means the Britons were allowed to trade with anyone they wished at these five ports and Hong Kong. Additionally, the British got right of consular jurisdiction,Most favored nation(MFN) treatment, tariff autonomy from the treaty. This treatment was the first unequal treaty.

Opium Smokers

Li Zexu

Li Zexu and the opium

The opium war

Treaty of Nanking


How did First Opium War and Treaty of Nanking affect the other two East Asian Countries?

Japan received this shocking news as a crisis of Japan. Lack a sense of crisis, Chinese government continued their living in the lap of luxury, while Li Zexu noticed the crisis of China and he translated many foreign historical books or geographic books into Chinese and tried to gather world information with enthusiasm. After the death of Li Zexu, his friend, Wei Yuan wrote Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms (海國圖志, Haiguo Tuzhì) which consisted of Western materialbased on Li Zexu research.

海國圖志, Haiguo Tuzh

This book was translated into 21 kinds of Japanese books soon. In Japan, the key personalities such as Shozan Sakuma, Shoin Yoshida and Takamori Saigo were big fan of this book. Studying of Li’s book, Japan could know the details of the Opium war and international affairs including international law. Besides his book, Japan could know the information of the world situation correctly from Dejima Dutch Trading Post located at Nagasaki Japan. With those information, Japan could prepare the imminent danger. Ironically, a book which was written in order to protect China helped Japan becoming the one of the powerful country and finally lead Japanese invasion toward China.

 

Shozan Sakuma

Shoin Yoshida

Korea

 According 河政植 Ha Jeong-Sik, the professor of the Soongsil University located at Seoul, he says different from Japan, Korea was under the tribute relationship with China and recognized China as their master country so Korean government placed much disproportionate weight on the Chinese side information so they couldn’t know the information correctly. For example, the Korean government had a misunderstand that China didn’t lose any their territory from the first Opium war. At the time, few people controlled all politics and didn’t make any effort to avoid foreign treat actively at all. The professor says one of the reason of their neglecting is that they thought Korea was poor so the western wouldn’t came to Korea because there were nothing they wanted and let their guard down. At the last he says, utilizing information is not depending on the information itself but depending on the perspectives and feeling of the person who use it.

 
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The reason why Japan (Japanese) hesitate to apologize to victim countries for Japanese War Crime committed at the World War Second.

Posted in About Japan by Courage to Talk for the Next Generation on January 16, 2010

“I love East Asia”

~Seeking the True History~

 This is updating from New York City.

 This is Kou.

 Today, I want to explain the one of the reason why Japanese people hesitate to apologize for Japanese War Crime at the World War Second. This is my personal opinion but it would be useful for you to understand Japan somehow and probably, this is what the other East Asian people have been wanted to know and wondering for a long. 

 After the World War Second, more than 10 Japanese prime ministers apologized to the other Asian Counties for the Japanese War Crime and paid huge war reparation to the other Asian Countries including tech support for infrastructures. For example, the 66.9% of foreign aid provided China paid by Japan and it is the biggest amount of aid provided to China. However this is not what the people of victim counties truly expected. I totally understand it. What they have been expecting from Japanese is neither politician apologize nor huge amount of aid but the word “I’m sorry” come from the bottom of Japanese heart.

 Probably you don’t know, majority of Japanese people acknowledge the Japanese World Crime and feel so sorry about it and it is the one of the causation of that Japanese young people came to hate Japanese history and Japan itself. You may wonder that if it’s so, why is it hard to apologize for them? In my opinion, it is because of Japanese complicated feeling about the World War Second and it makes it much harder for Japanese people to apologize. It could be divided  into several elements.

 First, feel so guilty about the war crime committed by Japanese soldiers and acknowledge how it was cruel and know the Japanese invasion deserve to be blame. Second, proud of the fact that Japan was the only country all over the world that fought against the western powers equality. Third, thank and respect the soldiers who fought and died to protect Japan and their family and feel sad about that they were forced to go out to fight and died for loose war. Forth, feel Japan was the one of the victim of the western powers too as well as the other Asian countries were. etc. Those elements are mixed and making one Japanese feeling complexly and as I mentioned it makes it difficult for Japanese to apologize. 

 Japanese people can not say it easily as the other Asian people think that the war was just wrong because it means the same thing to condemn and betray the soldiers who fought for country and their death given for Japan. Maybe you can imagine the Japanese confusion about the fact that people who should be respected and be thanked in Japan,on the other hand, committed a crime and be hated in the other Asian counties and also you can guess the Japanese feeling when they know that it has been criticizing over and over by the other Asian people that Japanese soldiers who were forced to fight for country and family called murder, evils and heartless people. It is so sad. Isn’t it? I’m really glad if you understand this complicated feeling and put my opinion into your mind as one of the reason of the question ” Why Japanese hesitate to apologize”.

 I think just putting a sentence before requesting apologizing from Japanese, “I know the soldiers fought for their family and there were any choices left for them except joining the war”, it would make huge difference and  make it much easier for Japanese people to apologize. (I think not only requesting, it is important to make easy condition for somebody to do it.) My mother told me that if the other Asian people said not only “Japan is bad” but also “it was sadness for both counties”, I can apologize to them about the Japanese crimes willingly.

 I think it is important to keep seeking apologizes from Japanese government and people not to any war would happen in our future again. However I think it is also important to put your eyes not only Japan but also your country such as the Chinese human abuses at Tibet, the massacres happened during the Tiananmen Incident and Korean war crime including massacres and rapes during the Vietnam war to understand that every people can be changed easily at war time or at confusing time. As a kind person who be loved by everybody can kill others at a battle field, we would be changed if we were forced to fight. I think before studying and thinking about war and conflict, we have to remind it on our mind. War can change everything.

*This is my personal opinion.  As there are tons of people in Japan, there are tons of ideas in Japan about the war such as “it was a self-defense war”, “I hate Japan”, “Chinese and Korean government train people to hate Japan” and etc (I’ll study about the other reasons of today’s topic and upload on this website someday). However I’m glad this article would help you to understand Japanese people somehow and to know one of the aspect of Japan. 

Thank you

Kou